Prevalence and determinants of anemia amongst HIV positive pregnant women in a tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

Innocent O. Eze, Clara U. Innoeze, Malachy E. Ayogu, Stephen C. Eze


Background: In pregnancy, anemia is associated with increased risk of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality especially in HIV situation. To determine the prevalence and determinants of anemia in HIV positive compared to HIV negative women.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out from June 2016 to December 2017 amongst pregnant women who presented to the antenatal clinic. Information on socio-demographic variables and laboratory test to determine the hemoglobin levels and CD4 count (for the HIV positive women) were carried out. A total of 350 subjects with equal number of HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women were recruited. Variables were compared between the two groups using software package for social sciences version 20. P values<0.05 at 95% confidence interval are considered statistically significant.

Results: The mean age for HIV positive and negative were 31.54 ±4.1 and 29.03 respectively while, mean gestational age at booking for HIV positive and negative were 20.41±8.61 and 22.37±7.4 weeks respectively. The HIV positive group had a mean parity of 2.02±1.5, and 2.56±1.2 was that of the HIV negative group. The mean hemoglobin statuses at booking were 9.92±1.8 g/dl and 10.6±1.1 g/df HIV positive and HIV negative women respectively. The mean CD4+ at booking for HIV positive group was 478±251 per microliter. The overall prevalence of anemia irrespective of HIV status was 36.6%. The prevalence of anemia in HIV positive and negative women were 44.6% and 28.6% respectively. There was statistically significant relationship between anemia and HIV status (p=0.002).

Conclusions: There was inverse relationship between CD4+ count and anemia. Low CD4+ count and non-use of HAART at booking were important determinants of anemia among the HIV.


Anemia, CD4+, Determinants, HIV, Prevalence, Nigeria

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