Analysis of risk factors associated with caesarean section surgical site infections: a case control study

Riya Rano, Purvi K. Patel


Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is defined as infection occurring within 30 days after a surgical procedure and affecting either the incision or deep tissues at the operation site. SSIs are the most common nosocomial infections, accounting for 38% of hospital-acquired infections. Despite the advances in SSI control practices, SSIs remain common causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. This study was undertaken with an objective to determine and analyze the risk factors associated with cesarean section SSIs.

Methods: The study was carried out at Medical College and SSG Hospital, Baroda. After obtaining informed consent to be a part of the study, 140 subjects having cesarean section SSI as per the definition, were included as cases in the study. The controls (140) were also selected from the hospital subjects. The primary post-operative care was similar for the cases as well as controls. For patients who had SSI, samples of discharge from the cesarean section wound were collected and transported for culture. Antibiotics were given accordingly. Details about patient characteristics and outcomes were collected in the proforma for cases and controls and data analyzed.

Results: The cesarean section SSI rate was 4.78%. Of the parameters studied, maternal age, parity, gestational age, HIV status, meconium stained amniotic fluid, amount of blood loss, previous surgery, duration of surgery were not associated with cesarean section SSI.

Conclusions: Number of antenatal care (ANC) visits, haemoglobin, total white blood cells (WBC) count, pre eclampsia, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), non-progression in 2nd stage and subcutaneous tissue thickness were the independent significant risk factors associated with post-cesarean SSI.


SSI, Cesarean section, Risk factors

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