A prospective study of hypothyroidism during pregnant attending tertiary care hospital in south India

G. Sravani, M. Smitha


Background: Disorder of thyroid function is common during pregnancy and hypothyroidism is more common then hyperthyroidism affecting 3–5% of all pregnant women. Maternal hypothyroidism is associated with both maternal adverse effects like preeclampsia, ecclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus and foetus complication like low birth weight, pre term birth, neurological deformities and abnormal presentation.

Methods: In present study 120 patients with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism were included in this study. Detailed histories of patients were taken and clinical examination was done and data was collected in a predesigned Performa. We used standard diagnostic criteria for diagnosis of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism.

Results: Pregnancy induced hypertension was found in 10% patient, Chronic hypertension was present in 1.6% patients, abortion in second trimester 1.6% patients, incomplete abortion in 4.18% patients. Missed abortion was present in 2.5% patients.

Conclusions: Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is more common in primi. Most common age group was third decade and was commonly detected before 10 weeks of gestation. Pregnancy induced hypertension, oligohydramnios and preterm delivery was more common than abortion in second trimester and missed abortion.


Complications, Hypothyroidism, Pregnancy

Full Text:



Leung AM. Thyroid function in pregnancy, J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012;26(2-3):137-40.

Brown RS. Mini review: developmental regulation of thyrotropin receptor gene expression in the fetal and newborn thyroid. Endocrinol. 2004;145(9):4058-61.

Jansen TA, Korevaar TIM, Mulder TA, White T, Muetzel RL, Peeters RP, et al. Maternal thyroid function during pregnancy and child brain morphology: a time window-specific analysis of a prospective cohort, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinol. 2019;7(8):19.

Teng W, Shan Z, Sisodia KP, Cooper DS. Hypothyroidism in pregnancy,The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinol. 2013;1(3):228-37.

Castillo Lara M, Vilar Sánchez Á, Cañavate Solano C, Soto Pazos E, Iglesias Álvarez M, González Macías C, Ayala Ortega C, Moreno Corral LJ, Fernández Alba JJ.Hypothyroidism screening during first trimester of pregnancy". BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 Dec 22;17(1):438. doi: 10.1186/s12884-017-1624-x.

Mandel SJ, Spencer CA, Hollowell JG. Are detection and treatment of thyroid insufficiency in pregnancy feasible? Thyroid. 2005;15(1):44-53.

Roti E, Fang SL, Emerson CH, Braverman LE. Placental inner ring iodothyronine deiodination: a mechanism for decreased passage of T4 and T3 from mother to fetus. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1981;94:183-9.

Allan WC, Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Williams JR, Mitchell ML, Hermos RJ, et al. Maternal thyroid deficiency and pregnancy complications: implications for population screening. J Med Screen. 2000;7(3):127-30.

Abalovich M, Gutierrez S, Alcaraz G, Maccallini G, Garcia A, Levalle O. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism complicating pregnancy. Thyroid. 2002;12(1):63-8.

Leung AS, Millar LK, Koonings PP, Montoro M, Mestman JH. Perinatal outcome in hypothyroid pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;81(3):349-53.

Idris I, Srinivasan R, Simm A, Page RC. Maternal hypothyroidism in early and late gestation: effects on neonatal and obstetric outcome..Clin Endocrinol. (Oxf). 2005;63(5):560-5.

Dhanwal DK, Bajaj S, Rajput R. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016;20(3):387-90.

Kalra B, Choudhary M, Thakral M, Kalra S. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Term Pregnancies in North India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;22(1):13-5.

Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy Available at: thyroid-disease-pregnancy/ on 10 September 2020.

Maraka S. Thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism: US national assessment. BMJ. 2017;356:i6865.

Korde VR, Barse SP, Barla JS. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in pregnant women: a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra, India. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2018;7:3211-5.

Nambiar V, Jagtap VS, Sarathi V, Lila AR, Kamalanathan S, Bandgar TR. "Prevalence and Impact of Thyroid Disorders on Maternal Outcome in Asian-Indian Pregnant Women", J Thyroid Res. 2011:6.

Teng X, Shan Z, Chen Y, Lai Y, Yu J, Shan L, et al. More than adequate iodine intake may increase subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis: a cross-sectional study based on two Chinese communities with different iodine intake levels. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:943-50.

Tudosa R, Vartej P, Horhoianu I, Ghica C, Mateescu S, Dumitrache I. Maternal and fetal complications of the hypothyroidism-related pregnancy. Maedica (Bucur). 2010;5(2):116-23.

Casey BM, Dashe JS, Wells CE. Subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105:239-45.