Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital


  • Ananthi Kasinathan Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Madagadipet- 605107, Pondicherry, India
  • Prasad Thirumal Department of Community Medicine, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Madagadipet- 605107, Pondicherry, India


Asymptomatic bacteriuria, UTI, Antenatal women, Urine culture


Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of actively multiplying bacteria within the urinary tract in the absence of any symptoms. Antenatal women are more susceptible to urinary tract infection because of the anatomical and physiological changes which occur during pregnancy. Aim of current study was the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women, the organisms responsible and to treat the same.

Methods: A total of 174 antenatal women of ≤28 weeks of gestation who had no clinical features of urinary tract infection were recruited for this study over a period of 6 months. Midstream urine sample was collected and sent for routine examination and culture-sensitivity testing.

Results: Significant bacteriuria was detected in 22 (12.6%) antenatal women. Of them 13 (59.1%) belonged to the age group 26-30 years. Nearly half of the culture positive cases, that is 10 (45.5%) were educated upto primary school and they belonged to socioeconomic status class 4. Majorities (68%) were in the second trimester of pregnancy and the commonest organism isolated was E. coli.  

Conclusions: Undetected and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria leads to chronic drug resistant infection, hypertension, anemia, etc. in the mother and prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction etc. in the fetus. Hence it is important to do urine culture for all women during antenatal check-up.


Anantnarayana R, Paniker J. Coliforms Proteus. In: Anantnarayana R, Paniker J, eds. Ananthanarayana and Paniker's Text Book of Microbiology. 7th ed. Andhra Pradesh, India: Orient Blackswan; 2005: 275.

Enayat K, Fariba F, Bahram N. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to out- patient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran. Int Braz J Urol. 2008;34:699-707.

Nath G, Chaudhary M, Prakash J, et al. Urinary tract infection during pregnancy and fetal outcome. Indian J Med Microbiol. 1996;14:158-60.

Chandel LR, Kanga A, Thakur K, et al. Prevalence of pregnancy associated bacteriuria: a study done in a tertiary care hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2012;62:511-4.

Cunningham FG, Gant NF, Laveno KJ, et al. Renal and urinary tract disorders. In: Cunningham FG, Gant NF, Laveno KJ et al., eds. Williams Obstetrics. 21st ed. New York: McGraw–Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2001: 1253-1254.

Gayathree I, Shetty S, Deshpande SR, Venkatesh DT. Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. An evaluation of various screening tests in Hassan district hospital, India. J Clin Diag Res. 2010;4:2702-6.

Patterson TF, Andriole VT. Bacteriuria in pregnancy. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1987;1:807-22.

Samuel Tertius Cowan, Kenneth John Steel. Reagents and methods. In: Cowan and Steels Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. In: Barrow GI, Feltham RKA, eds. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1993: 326.

Hamdan Z, H. A. Haliem, M. Ziad, S. K. Ali, Adam I. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North hospital. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2011;10:2.

Smaill F, Vazquez JC. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD000490.

Kass EH, Pyelonephritis and bacteriuria. A major problem in preventive medicine. Ann Intern Med. 1962;65(1):46-53.

Lavanya SV, Jogalokshmi D. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;20:105-6.

Goldenberg RL, J. C. Hauth, Andrews WW. Intrauterine infection and preterm delivery. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1500-7.

Gomez, R, R. Romero, S. S. Edwin, David C. Pathogenesis of preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes associated with intraamniotic infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997;11:135-76.

Delzell JE Jr, Lefevre ML. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Am Family Physician. 2000;61(3):713-21.

Nicolle LE. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: when to screen and when to treat. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003;17:367-94.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: 17th informational supplement. CLSI / NCCLS document M100-S17. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, Pennsylvania. 2007:27(1)1-177.

Senthinath TJ, Rajalaksmi PC, Keerthana R, Vigneshwari RS, Revathi P et al. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women in rural tertiary care hospital, Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2013;2(1):80-5.

Yashodhara P, Mathur R, Raman I. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy. Indian J Med Res. 1987;86:309-14.

Kerure SB, Surpur R, Sagarad SS, Hegadi S. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;2(2):213-6.

Kriplani A, Buksheek K, Ratan A. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant Indian patients at all india institute of medical sciences, New Delhi and treatment with single dose antimicrobial therapy. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 1993;43:489-91.

Whalley PJ, Cunningham FG. Short-term versus continuous antimicrobial therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol. 1997;9:262-5.

Turpin CA, Minakh B, Danso KA, Frimpong EH. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching hospital, Kumasi. Ghana Med J. 2007;41:26-9.

Amadi ES, Enemuo OB, Uneke CJ, Nwosu OK, et al. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakahki, Ebonyi state. Nigeria J Med Sci. 2007;7:698-700.

Akinloye O, Ogbolu DO, Akinloye OM, Terry Alli OA. Asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy in Ibadan, Nigeria: a re-assessment. Br J Biomed Sci. 2006;63:109-12.

Imade PE, Izekor PE, Eghafona NO, Enabuele OI, Ophori E. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. North Am J Med Sci. 2010;2:263-6.

Fatima N, Ishrat S. Frequency and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16:273-5.

Oli A.N, Okafor C.I, Ibezim E.C, Akujiobi C.N, and Onwunzo M.C. The prevalence and bacteriology of asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal patients in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi; South Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian J Clin Pract. 2010;13(4):409-12.

Shankar RD, Arlappa N. An updated Prasad’s socioeconomic status classification for 2013. Int J Res Dev Health. 2013 Apr;1(2):26-8.

Perera J, Ranadeniya C, Perera P, Gamhewage N, et al. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors and causative organisms. Sri Lankan J Infect Dis. 2012;1(2):42-6.

Girishbabu RJ, Srikrishna R, Ramesh ST. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2:740-2.

Mac Nair RD, MacDonald SR, Dooley SL, et al. Evaluation of the centrifuged and gram-stained smear urinalysis and reagent strip testing to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in Obstetric patients. Am J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;182:1076-9.

Rouse DJ, Andrews WW, Goldenberg RL, Owen J. Screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy to prevent pyelonephritis: a cost-effectiveness and cost-beneficial analysis. Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;86:119-23.






Original Research Articles