DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20210725

Maternal and perinatal outcome in severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia: a study of 120 cases at a tertiary health care center in Western India

Akash J. Patel, Babulal S. Patel, Akshay C. Shah, Shashwat K. Jani

Abstract


Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Pre-eclampsia accounts for the majority of referrals in a tertiary care center as it stands one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It complicates 6-10% of all pregnancies. In India, they account for the third most important cause of maternal mortality. Patients with PIH are at a greater risk of abruptio placenta, cerebrovascular events, organ failure and DIC. Fetuses are at a greater risk of IUGR, preterm birth, small for gestational age and IUD. This study aimed to determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes of hospitalized pregnant cases with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia.

Methods: This was a single year retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care center of Western India from May 2019 to May 2020. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were analyzed among the severe preeclampsia and eclampsia groups.

Results: A total 52 (43.33%) of the cases were in the age group of 21-25 years, 64 (53.33%) were primigravidae and the majority were referred from peripheral hospitals. Liver function tests were deranged in 26.68% of the patients and 32.5% had abnormal renal function. Labetalol was the most commonly used antihypertensive and magnesium sulphate was the anticonvulsant used in all the cases. Lower segment caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 62 (51.67%) of the cases. Commonest maternal complication was atonic PPH (12.5%). There was one maternal mortality due to aspiration pneumonia. 85 (70.83%) of the babies needed NICU admission. There were 5 (4.16%) perinatal deaths.

Conclusions: Accessible health care and health education and awareness regarding antenatal check-ups for all women will lead to early detection of severe preeclampsia. Prompt treatment and management of its complications will certainly improve the maternal and fetal outcome.


Keywords


Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, Maternal morbidity, Maternal mortality, Perinatal morbidity, Perinatal mortality

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References


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