Prevalence of thyroid disorders among pregnant women at a tertiary care hospital in Rajasthan
Keywords:Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Pregnant women, Thyroid dysfunction, Thyroid stimulating hormone
Background: Hormonal changes and metabolic demands during pregnancy result in profound alterations in the biochemical parameters of thyroid function. Screening for thyroid disorders and initiation of its management at the earliest stage during first trimester is essential as maternal thyroid failure during the first half of pregnancy has been associated with several pregnancy complications and intellectual impairment in offspring. Aim was to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction during the first and second trimester of pregnancy among women of Rajasthan state in India.
Methods: The study comprised a cohort of 313 consecutive pregnant women in the first and second trimester that attended the OPD and were admitted as pregnant women in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the NIMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and free T4 (fT4) were estimated. The subjects were grouped into six groups based on the value of serum TSH and fT4.
Results: Out of 313 antenatal women enrolled in the study, 213 (68%) attended antenatal clinic in first trimester of pregnancy and 100 (32%) women in their second trimester. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 15.97% (overt hypothyroidism 1.28%, subclinical hypothyroidism 4.79%, isolated hypothyroxinemia 4.47%, overt hyperthyroidism 1.92%, and subclinical hyperthyroidism 3.51%). The women with overt hypo- or hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism were older than euthyroid women. Maternal weight was high in pregnant women with overt hypothyroidism (58.22±6.18 kg) and subclinical hypothyroidism (52.04±2.94 kg). Gravid status was high in pregnant women with overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated hypothyroxinemia, but low in hyperthyroid group. History of miscarriage was high in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.
Conclusions: With this study, it was concluded that there is high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy predominantly in rural population of Rajasthan. Majority among these being subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinemia.
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