Published: 2021-04-23

Evaluation of periodontal health among patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome a cross sectional study

Rohini Subbiah, Menaka Sathish, Madankumar Parangimalai Diwakar


Background: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and periodontal disease are common disorders associated with diabetes and cardiometabolic risk. Recently, some studies have revealed the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on gingival inflammation. This cross-sectional study attempts to assess the periodontal health status and systemic inflammation of women receiving medical treatment for PCOS and women newly diagnosed with PCOS.

Methods: A total of 60 participants comprising 30 newly diagnosed patients with PCOS (PCOS-N), 30 patients with PCOS on medical treatment (PCOS-MT) were examined. Periodontal parameters were recorded and compared.

Results: This study resulted that the women with newly diagnosed PCOS may have increased prevalence and likelihood for periodontitis, with higher measures of periodontal inflammation and breakdown than those on medical treatment for PCOS.

Conclusions: In PCOS females, there is an alteration of various hormone levels in the body. These hormones might act on gingival cells by changing the effectiveness of the epithelial barrier to bacterial injury or by affecting the collagen maintenance and repair.


Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Gingival disease, Periodontal disease

Full Text:



Nidhi R, Padmalatha V, Nagarathna R, Amritanshu R. Prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome in Indian adolescents. J PediatrAdolesc Gynecol. 2011;24:2237.

Nair MK, Pappachan P, Balakrishnan S, Leena ML, George B, Russell PS, et al. Menstrual irregularity and poly cystic ovarian syndrome among adolescent girls – A 2 year follow-up study. Indian J Pediatr. 2012;79(Suppl 1):S69-73.

Cinar N, Kizilarslanoglu MC, Harmanci A. Depression, anxiety and cardiometabolic risk in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:3339-3345.

Toulis KA, Goulis DG, Mintziori G, Kintiraki E, Eukarpidis E, Mouratoglou SA et al. Meta-analysis of cardiovascular disease risk markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17(6):741-60.

Legro RS., Arslanian SA, Ehrmann DA, Hoeger KM, Murad MH, Pasquali R, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2013;98:4565-4592.

Barnes RB, Rosenfield RL, Burstein S, Ehrmann DA. Pituitary-ovarian responses to nafarelin testing in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:559-565.

Rosenfield RL, Barnes RB, Cara JF, Lucky AW. Dysregulation of cytochrome P450c 17α as the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome. FertilSteril. 1990;53:785-791.

Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod. 2004;19:41-47.

International & American Associations for Dental Research. “Severe periodontitis: Sixth most prevalent health condition in the world.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 September 2014. Last accessed on 20th December, 2020.

Moutsopoulos NM, Madianos PN. Low-grade inflammation in chronic infectious diseases: Paradigm of periodontal infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1088:251-64.

Rahiminejad ME, Moaddab A, Zaryoun H, Rabiee S, Moaddab A, KhodadoustanA . Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls. Dental Res J. 2015;12:507-512.

Dursun E, Akalin FA, Güncü GN, Çinar N, Aksoy DY, Tözüm TF, et al. Periodontal disease in polycystic ovary syndrome. FertilSteril. 2011;95:320-3.

Porwal S, Tewari S, Sharma RK, Singhal SR, Narula SC. Periodontal status and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in polycystic ovary syndrome with and without medical treatment. J Periodontol. 2014;85:1380-9.

Markou E, Eleana B, Lazaros T, Antonios K. The influence of sex steroid hormones on gingiva of women. Open Dent J. 2009;3:114-9.

Brooks JK. The effects of hormonal oral contraceptives on the female human periodontium and experimental animal models, a review of the literature. J Baltimore Coll Dent Surg. 1980;33:12-6.

Bullon P, Morillo JM, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Quiles JL, Newman HN, Battino M. Metabolic syndrome and periodontitis: Is oxidative stress a common link? J Dent Res. 2009;88:503-18.

Machtei EE, Mahler D, Sanduri H, Peled M. The effect of menstrual cycle on periodontal health. J Periodontol. 2004;75:408-12.

Porwal S, Tewari S, Sharma RK, Singhal SR, Narula SC. Periodontal status and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in polycystic ovary syndrome with and without medical treatment. J Periodontol. 2014;85:1380-9.

Loe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity. Acta OdontolScand. 1963;21:533-51.

Silness J, Lo¨e H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. II. Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condition. Acta Odontol Scand. 1964;22:121-135:713-21.